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Concepts of Income and Valuation of Assets - دانلود رایگان



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دانلود رایگان Concepts of Income and Valuation of AssetsTheoretical Ground for Mark-to-market Accounting and Realization Basis
Shizuki Saito
Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo
and Accounting Standards Board of Japan
October, 2002
* Originally written in Japanese and presented at the 3rd
Kobe Conference on Accounting in June, 1997
(collected in I. Nakano and H. Yamaji ed., Accounting Valuation in the21stCentury, Keiso Publishing Co., 1998).
asb.or.jp/cgi-bin
Abstract
This paper reviews the accounting standards concerning asset valuation in light of consistency with the objective of financial statements and the concept of income to be measured. Conceptual analysis of “economic income” and “realized income” leads to the relevance of the latter concept in providing the investors with pertinent information for their valuation of the firm. Conventional concept of realization is then to be modified to meet the pressing needs for mark-to-market accounting.
The result of an investment is regarded as realized to be compared with the ex ante expectations when it has been released from the business risk inherent in the investment. The realized income captures the extent to which the expected results have been achieved. This modified concept is
applied to the valuation of physical business assets and financial assets, classified in accordance with the nature of investment. The paper demonstrates that different measurement attributes are compatible under the concept of realized income and concludes that a consistent application of fundamental concepts is rather important than the uniformity of one particular attribute.


1. Introduction
Asset valuation has always been a major subject of studies on accounting standards, as the issue is closely related to measurement and disclosure of corporate income. The terminologies of “historical cost accounting” and “fair value accounting”, derived in the course of such studies, are symbolic of significant focus in asset valuation, in that the doctrines are named after alternatives of measurement bases.
However, the determinant factors in an accounting model should be, among others, its objectives and basic concepts including that of income. A measurement attribute or valuation basis is a means to achieve the given objectives and a mere tool for measuring numerical concepts such as capital and income. If there should be a basic principle in accounting, it is not a valuation basis as a tool but a set of objectives and concepts, which determines the choice of valuation bases 1.From such a viewpoint, this paper will review in detail the concepts of income and the objectives of disclosing income and, based on such reviews, will restudy the basis of asset valuation to meet the emerging needs for financial information. The basic issues here are consistency of objectives and concepts and coherence of the logic used in selecting a valuation basis as a tool.





Concepts of Income and Valuation of Assets


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